Maven: The Complete Reference

The Project Object Model

Chapter 3

3.1. Introduction

This chapter covers the central concept of Maven—the Project Object Model. The POM is where a project’s identity and structure are declared, builds are configured, and projects are related to one another. The presence of a pom.xml file defines a Maven project.

3.2. The POM

Maven projects, dependencies, builds, artifacts: all of these are objects to be modeled and described. These objects are described by an XML file called a Project Object Model. The POM tells Maven what sort of project it is dealing with and how to modify default behavior to generate output from source. In the same way a Java web application has a web.xml that describes, configures, and customizes the application, a Maven project is defined by the presence of a pom.xml. It is a descriptive declaration of a project for Maven; it is the figurative “map” that Maven needs to understand what it is looking at when it builds your project.

You could also think of the pom.xml as analogous to a Makefile or an Ant build.xml. When you are using GNU make to build something like MySQL, you’ll usually have a file named Makefile that contains explicit instructions for building a binary from source. When you are using Apache Ant, you likely have a file named build.xml that contains explicit instructions for cleaning, compiling, packaging, and deploying an application. make, Ant, and Maven are similar in that they rely on the presence of a commonly named file such as Makefile, build.xml, or pom.xml, but that is where the similarities end. If you look at a Maven pom.xml, the majority of the POM is going to deal with descriptions: Where is the source code? Where are the resources? What is the packaging? If you look at an Ant build.xml file, you’ll see something entirely different. You’ll see explicit instructions for tasks such as compiling a set of Java classes. The Maven POM is declarative, and although you can certainly choose to include some procedural customizations via the Maven Ant plugin, for the most part you will not need to get into the gritty procedural details of your project’s build.

The POM is also not specific to building Java projects. While most of the examples in this book are geared towards Java applications, there is nothing Java-specific in the definition of a Maven Project Object Model. While Maven’s default plugins are targeted at building JAR artifacts from a set of source, tests, and resources, there is nothing preventing you from defining a POM for a project that contains C# sources and produces some proprietary Microsoft binary using Microsoft tools. Similarly, there is nothing stopping you from defining a POM for a technical book. In fact, the source for this book and this book’s examples is captured in a multi-module Maven project which uses one of the many Maven Docbook plugins to apply the standard Docbook XSL to a series of chapter XML files. Others have created Maven plugins to build Adobe Flex code into SWCs and SWFs, and yet others have used Maven to build projects written in C.

We’ve established that the POM describes and declares, it is unlike Ant or Make in that it doesn’t provide explicit instructions, and we’ve noted that POM concepts are not specific to Java. Diving into more specifics, take a look at Figure 3.1, “The Project Object Model” for a survey of the contents of a POM.

Figure 3.1. The Project Object Model

The POM contains four categories of description and configuration:

General project information

This includes a project’s name, the URL for a project, the sponsoring organization, and a list of developers and contributors along with the license for a project.

Build settings

In this section, we customize the behavior of the default Maven build. We can change the location of source and tests, we can add new plugins, we can attach plugin goals to the lifecycle, and we can customize the site generation parameters.

Build environment

The build environment consists of profiles that can be activated for use in different environments. For example, during development you may want to deploy to a development server, whereas in production you want to deploy to a production server. The build environment customizes the build settings for specific environments and is often supplemented by a custom settings.xml in ~/.m2. This settings file is discussed in Chapter 5, Build Profiles and in the section Section 15.2, “Settings Details”.

POM relationships

A project rarely stands alone; it depends on other projects, inherits POM settings from parent projects, defines its own coordinates, and may include submodules.

3.2.1. The Super POM

Before we dive into some examples of POMs, let’s take a quick look at the Super POM. All Maven project POMs extend the Super POM, which defines a set of defaults shared by all projects. This Super POM is a part of the Maven installation. Depending on the Maven version it can be found in the maven-x.y.z-uber.jar or maven-model-builder-xy.z.jar file in ${M2_HOME}/lib. If you look in this JAR file, you will find a file named pom-4.0.0.xml under the org.apache.maven.model package. It is also published on the Maven reference site that is available for each version of Maven separately and e.g. for Maven 3.1.1 it can be found with the Maven Model Builder documentation. A Super POM for Maven is shown in The Super POM.

Tip

An analogy to how the Super POM is the parent for all Maven POM files, would be how java.lang.Object is the top of the class hierarchy for all Java classes.

The Super POM. 

<project>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <name>Maven Default Project</name>
    <repositories>
        <repository> 
        
            <id>central</id> (1)
                <name>Maven Repository Switchboard</name>
                <layout>default</layout>
                <url>http://repo1.maven.org/maven2</url>
                <snapshots>
                    <enabled>false</enabled>
                </snapshots>
        </repository>
    </repositories>
    <pluginRepositories>
        <pluginRepository>
        
            <id>central</id> (2)
                <name>Maven Plugin Repository</name>
                <url>http://repo1.maven.org/maven2</url>
                <layout>default</layout>
                <snapshots>
                    <enabled>false</enabled>
                </snapshots>
                <releases>
                    <updatePolicy>never</updatePolicy>
                </releases>
        </pluginRepository>
    </pluginRepositories>
    <build> (3)
            <directory>${project.basedir}/target</directory>
            <outputDirectory>
                ${project.build.directory}/classes
            </outputDirectory>
            <finalName>${project.artifactId}-${project.version}</finalName>
            <testOutputDirectory>
                ${project.build.directory}/test-classes
            </testOutputDirectory>
            <sourceDirectory>
                ${project.basedir}/src/main/java
            </sourceDirectory>
            <scriptSourceDirectory>src/main/scripts</scriptSourceDirectory>
            <testSourceDirectory>
                ${project.basedir}/src/test/java
            </testSourceDirectory>
            <resources>
                <resource>
                    <directory>${project.basedir}/src/main/resources</directory>
                </resource>
            </resources>
            <testResources>
                <testResource>
                    <directory>${project.basedir}/src/test/resources</directory>
                </testResource>
            </testResources>
            <pluginManagement> (4)
                    <plugins>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-antrun-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>1.3</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-assembly-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.2-beta-2</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-clean-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.2</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.0.2</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-dependency-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.0</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-deploy-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.4</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-ear-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.3.1</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-ejb-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.1</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-install-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.2</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-jar-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.2</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-javadoc-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.5</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-plugin-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.4.3</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-rar-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.2</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-release-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.0-beta-8</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-resources-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.3</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-site-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.0-beta-7</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-source-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.0.4</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.4.3</version>
                        </plugin>
                        <plugin>
                            <artifactId>maven-war-plugin</artifactId>
                            <version>2.1-alpha-2</version>
                        </plugin>
                    </plugins>
            </pluginManagement>

            <reporting>
                <outputDirectory>target/site</outputDirectory>
            </reporting>
</project>

The Super POM defines some standard configuration variables that are inherited by all projects. Those values are captured in the annotated sections:

(1)

The default Super POM defines a single remote Maven repository with an ID of central. This is the Central Repository that all Maven clients are configured to read from by default. This setting can be overridden by a custom settings.xml file. Note that the default Super POM has disabled snapshot artifacts on the Central Repository. If you need to use a snapshot repository, you will need to customize repository settings in your pom.xml or in your settings.xml. Settings and profiles are covered in Chapter 5, Build Profiles and in Section 15.2, “Settings Details”.

(2)

The Central Repository also contains Maven plugins. The default plugin repository is the central Maven repository. Snapshots are disabled, and the update policy is set to “never,” which means that Maven will never automatically update a plugin if a new version is released.

(3)

The build element sets the default values for directories in the Maven Standard Directory layout.

(4)

Starting in Maven 2.0.9, default versions of core plugins have been provided in the Super POM. This was done to provide some stability for users that are not specifying versions in their POMs. In newer versions some of this has been migrated out of the file. However you can still see the versions that will be used in your project using mvn help:effective-pom.

Figure 3.2. The Super POM is always the base Parent

3.2.2. The Simplest POM

All Maven POMs inherit defaults from the Super POM (introduced earlier in the section Section 3.2.1, “The Super POM”). If you are just writing a simple project that produces a JAR from some source in src/main/java, want to run your JUnit tests in src/test/java, and want to build a project site using mvn site, you don’t have to customize anything. All you would need, in this case, is the simplest possible POM shown in The Simplest POM. This POM defines a groupId, artifactId, and version: the three required coordinates for every project.

The Simplest POM. 

<project>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>org.sonatype.mavenbook.ch08</groupId>
    <artifactId>simplest-project</artifactId>
    <version>1</version>
</project>

Such a simple POM would be more than adequate for a simple project—e.g., a Java library that produces a JAR file. It isn’t related to any other projects, it has no dependencies, and it lacks basic information such as a name and a URL. If you were to create this file and then create the subdirectory src/main/java with some source code, running mvn package would produce a JAR in target/simple-project-1.jar.

3.2.3. The Effective POM

$ mvn help:effective-pom

Executing the effective-pom goal should print out an XML document capturing the merge between the Super POM and the POM from The Simplest POM.

3.2.4. Real POMs

Maven is something of a chameleon; you can pick and choose the features you want to take advantage of. Some open source projects may value the ability to list developers and contributors, generate clean project documentation, and manage releases automatically using the Maven Release plugin. On the other hand, someone working in a corporate environment on a small team might not be interested in the distribution management capabilities of Maven nor the ability to list developers. The remainder of this chapter is going to discuss features of the POM in isolation. Instead of bombarding you with a 10-page listing of a set of related POMs, we’re going to focus on creating a good reference for specific sections of the POM. In this chapter, we discuss relationships between POMs, but we don’t illustrate such a project here.

3.3. POM Syntax

The POM is always in a file named pom.xml in the base directory of a Maven project. This XML document can start with the XML declaration, or you can choose to omit it. All values in a POM are captured as XML elements.

3.3.1. Project Versions

A project’s version number is used to group and order releases. Maven versions contain the following parts: major version, minor version, incremental version, and qualifier. In a version, these parts correspond to the following format:

<major version>.<minor version>.<incremental version>-<qualifier>

For example, the version "1.3.5" has a major version of 1, a minor version of 3, and an incremental version of 5. The version "5" has a major version of 5 and no minor or incremental version. The qualifier exists to capture milestone builds: alpha and beta releases, and the qualifier is separated from the major, minor, and incremental versions by a hyphen. For example, the version "1.3-beta-01" has a major version of 1, a minor version of 3, no incremental version and a qualifier of "beta-01".

Keeping your version numbers aligned with this standard will become very important when you want to start using version ranges in your POMs. Version ranges, introduced in Section 3.4.3, “Dependency Version Ranges”, allow you to specify a dependency on a range of versions, and they are only supported because Maven has the ability to sort versions based on the version release number format introduced in this section.

If your version release number matches the format <major>.<minor>.<incremental>-<qualifier> then your versions will be compared properly; "1.2.3" will be evaluated as a more recent build than "1.0.2", and the comparison will be made using the numeric values of the major, minor, and incremental versions. If your version release number does not fit the standard introduced in this section, then your versions will be compared as strings; "1.0.1b" will be compared to "1.2.0b" using a String comparison.

Version Build Numbers

One gotcha for release version numbers is the ordering of the qualifiers. Take the version release numbers “1.2.3-alpha-2” and “1.2.3-alpha-10,” where the “alpha-2” build corresponds to the 2nd alpha build, and the “alpha-10” build corresponds to the 10th alpha build. Even though “alpha-10” should be considered more recent than “alpha-2,” Maven is going to sort “alpha-10” before “alpha-2” due to a known issue in the way Maven handles version numbers.

Maven is supposed to treat the number after the qualifier as a build number. In other words, the qualifier should be "alpha", and the build number should be 2. Even though Maven has been designed to separate the build number from the qualifier, this parsing is currently broken. As a result, "alpha-2" and "alpha-10" are compared using a String comparison, and "alpha-10" comes before "alpha-2" alphabetically. To get around this limitation, you will need to left-pad your qualified build numbers. If you use "alpha-02" and "alpha-10" this problem will go away, and it will continue to work once Maven properly parses the version build number.

SNAPSHOT Versions

Maven versions can contain a string literal to signify that a project is currently under active development. If a version contains the string “-SNAPSHOT,” then Maven will expand this token to a date and time value converted to UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) when you install or release this component. For example, if your project has a version of “1.0-SNAPSHOT” and you deploy this project’s artifacts to a Maven repository, Maven would expand this version to “1.0-20080207-230803-1” if you were to deploy a release at 11:08 PM on February 7th, 2008 UTC. In other words, when you deploy a snapshot, you are not making a release of a software component; you are releasing a snapshot of a component at a specific time.

Why would you use this? SNAPSHOT versions are used for projects under active development. If your project depends on a software component that is under active development, you can depend on a SNAPSHOT release, and Maven will periodically attempt to download the latest snapshot from a repository when you run a build. Similarly, if the next release of your system is going to have a version "1.4", your project would have a version "1.4-SNAPSHOT" until it was formally released.

As a default setting, Maven will not check for SNAPSHOT releases on remote repositories. To depend on SNAPSHOT releases, users must explicitly enable the ability to download snapshots using a repository or pluginRepository element in the POM.

When releasing a project, you should resolve all dependencies on SNAPSHOT versions to dependencies on released versions. If a project depends on a SNAPSHOT, it is not stable as the dependencies may change over time. Artifacts published to non-snapshot Maven repositories such as http://repo1.maven.org/maven2 cannot depend on SNAPSHOT versions, as Maven’s Super POM has snapshot’s disabled from the Central repository. SNAPSHOT versions are for development only.

3.3.2. Property References

The syntax for using a property in Maven is to surround the property name with two curly braces and precede it with a dollar symbol. For example, consider the following POM:

<project>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>org.sonatype.mavenbook</groupId>
    <artifactId>project-a</artifactId>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <packaging>jar</packaging>
    <build>
        <finalName>${project.groupId}-${project.artifactId}</finalName>
    </build>
</project>

If you put this XML in a pom.xml and run mvn help:effective-pom, you will see that the output contains the line:

...
<finalName>org.sonatype.mavenbook-project-a</finalName>
...

When Maven reads a POM, it replaces references to properties when it loads the POM XML. Maven properties occur frequently in advanced Maven usage, and are similar to properties in other systems such as Ant or Velocity. They are simply variables delimited by ${...}. Maven provides three implicit variables which can be used to access environment variables, POM information, and Maven Settings:

env

The env variable exposes environment variables exposed by your operating system or shell. For example, a reference to ${env.PATH} in a Maven POM would be replaced by the ${PATH} environment variable (or %PATH% in Windows).

project

The env variable exposes environment variables exposed by your operating system or shell. For example, a reference to ${env.PATH} in a Maven POM would be replaced by the ${PATH} environment variable (or %PATH% in Windows).

settings

The settings variable exposes Maven settings information. You can use a dot-notated (.) path to reference the value of an element in a settings.xml file. For example, ${settings.offline} would reference the value of the offline element in ~/.m2/settings.xml.

Note

You may see older builds that use ${pom.xxx} or just ${xxx} to reference POM properties. These methods have been deprecated and only ${project.xxx} should be used.

In addition to the three implicit variables, you can reference system properties and any custom properties set in the Maven POM or in a build profile:

Java System Properties

All properties accessible via getProperties() on java.lang.System are exposed as POM properties. Some examples of system properties are: ${user.name}, ${user.home}, ${java.home}, and ${os.name}. A full list of system properties can be found in the Javadoc for the System class.

X

All properties accessible via getProperties() on java.lang.System are exposed as POM properties. Some examples of system properties are: ${user.name}, ${user.home}, ${java.home}, and ${os.name}. A full list of system properties can be found in the Javadoc for the System class.

<properties>
    <foo>bar</foo>
</properties>

For a more comprehensive list of available properties, see Chapter 9, Properties and Resource Filtering.

3.4. Project Dependencies

Maven can manage both internal and external dependencies. An external dependency for a Java project might be a library such as Plexus, the Spring Framework, or Log4J. An internal dependency is illustrated by a web application project depending on another project that contains service classes, model objects, or persistence logic. Project Dependencies shows some examples of project dependencies.

Project Dependencies. 

<project>
    ...
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.codehaus.xfire</groupId>
            <artifactId>xfire-java5</artifactId>
            <version>1.2.5</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>junit</groupId>
            <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
            <version>3.8.1</version>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
            <artifactId>servlet-api</artifactId>
            <version>2.4</version>
            <scope>provided</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
    ...
</project>

The first dependency is a compile dependency on the XFire SOAP library from Codehaus. You would use this type of dependency if your project depended on this library for compilation, testing, and during execution. The second dependency is a test-scoped dependency on JUnit. You would use a test-scoped dependency when you need to reference this library only during testing. The last dependency in Project Dependencies is a dependency on the Servlet 2.4 API. The last dependency is scoped as a provided dependency. You would use a provided scope when the application you are developing needs a library for compilation and testing, but this library is supplied by a container at runtime.

3.4.1. Dependency Scope

Project Dependencies briefly introduced three of the five dependency scopes: compile, test, and provided. Scope controls which dependencies are available in which classpath, and which dependencies are included with an application. Let’s explore each scope in detail:

compile

compile is the default scope; all dependencies are compile-scoped if a scope is not supplied. compile dependencies are available in all classpaths, and they are packaged.

provided

provided dependencies are used when you expect the JDK or a container to provide them. For example, if you were developing a web application, you would need the Servlet API available on the compile classpath to compile a servlet, but you wouldn’t want to include the Servlet API in the packaged WAR; the Servlet API JAR is supplied by your application server or servlet container. provided dependencies are available on the compilation classpath (not runtime). They are not transitive, nor are they packaged.

runtime

runtime dependencies are required to execute and test the system, but they are not required for compilation. For example, you may need a JDBC API JAR at compile time and the JDBC driver implementation only at runtime.

test

test-scoped dependencies are not required during the normal operation of an application, and they are available only during test compilation and execution phases.

system

The system scope is similar to provided except that you have to provide an explicit path to the JAR on the local file system. This is intended to allow compilation against native objects that may be part of the system libraries. The artifact is assumed to always be available and is not looked up in a repository. If you declare the scope to be system, you must also provide the systemPath element. Note that this scope is not recommended (you should always try to reference dependencies in a public or custom Maven repository).

3.4.2. Optional Dependencies

Assume that you are working on a library that provides caching behavior. Instead of writing a caching system from scratch, you want to use some of the existing libraries that provide caching on the file system and distributed caches. Also assume that you want to give the end user an option to cache on the file system or to use an in-memory distributed cache. To cache on the file system, you’ll want to use a freely available library called EHCache (http://ehcache.sourceforge.net/), and to cache in a distributed in-memory cache, you want to use another freely available caching library named SwarmCache ( http://swarmcache.sourceforge.net/ ). You’ll code an interface and create a library that can be configured to use either EHCache or SwarmCache, but you want to avoid adding a dependency on both caching libraries to any project that depends on your library.

In other words, you need both libraries to compile this library project, but you don’t want both libraries to show up as transitive runtime dependencies for the project that uses your library. You can accomplish this by using optional dependencies as shown in Declaring Optional Dependencies.

Declaring Optional Dependencies. 

<project>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>org.sonatype.mavenbook</groupId>
    <artifactId>my-project</artifactId>
    <version>1.0.0</version>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>net.sf.ehcache</groupId>
            <artifactId>ehcache</artifactId>
            <version>1.4.1</version>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>swarmcache</groupId>
            <artifactId>swarmcache</artifactId>
            <version>1.0RC2</version>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>log4j</groupId>
            <artifactId>log4j</artifactId>
            <version>1.2.13</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</project>

Since you’ve declared these dependencies as optional in my-project, if you’ve defined a project that depends on my-project which needs those dependencies, you’ll have to include them explicitly in the project that depends on my-project. For example, if you were writing an application which depended on my-project and wanted to use the EHCache implementation, you would need to add the following dependency element to your project.

<project>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>org.sonatype.mavenbook</groupId>
    <artifactId>my-application</artifactId>
    <version>1.0.0</version>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.sonatype.mavenbook</groupId>
            <artifactId>my-project</artifactId>
            <version>1.0.0</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>net.sf.ehcache</groupId>
            <artifactId>ehcache</artifactId>
            <version>1.4.1</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</project>

In an ideal world, you wouldn’t have to use optional dependencies. Instead of having one large project with a series of optional dependencies, you would separate the EHCache-specific code to a my-project-ehcache submodule and the SwarmCache-specific code to a my-project-swarmcache submodule. This way, instead of requiring projects that reference my-project to specifically add a dependency, projects can just reference a particular implementation project and benefit from the transitive dependency.

3.4.3. Dependency Version Ranges

Instead of a specific version for each dependency, you can alternatively specify a range of versions that would satisfy a given dependency. For example, you can specify that your project depends on version 3.8 or greater of JUnit, or anything between versions 4.5 and 4.10 of JUnit. You do this by surrounding one or more version numbers with the following characters:

(, )

Exclusive quantifiers

[, ]

Inclusive quantifiers

For example, if you wished to access any JUnit version greater than or equal to 3.8 but less than 4.0, your dependency would be as shown in Specifying a Dependency Range: JUnit 3.8 - JUnit 4.0.

Specifying a Dependency Range: JUnit 3.8 - JUnit 4.0. 

<dependency>
    <groupId>junit</groupId>
    <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
    <version>[3.8,4.0)</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

If you want to depend on any version of JUnit no higher than 3.8.1, you would specify only an upper inclusive boundary, as shown in Specifying a Dependency Range: JUnit ⇐ 3.8.1.

Specifying a Dependency Range: JUnit ⇐ 3.8.1. 

<dependency>
    <groupId>junit</groupId>
    <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
    <version>[,3.8.1]</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

A version before or after the comma is not required, and means +/- infinity. For example, "[4.0,)" means any version greater than or equal to 4.0. "(,2.0)" is any version less than 2.0. "[1.2]" means only version 1.2, and nothing else.

Note

When declaring a "normal" version such as 3.8.2 for Junit, internally this is represented as "allow anything, but prefer 3.8.2." This means that when a conflict is detected, Maven is allowed to use the conflict algorithms to choose the best version. If you specify [3.8.2], it means that only 3.8.2 will be used and nothing else. If somewhere else there is a dependency that specifies [3.8.1], you would get a build failure telling you of the conflict. We point this out to make you aware of the option, but use it sparingly and only when really needed. The preferred way to resolve this is via dependencyManagement.

3.4.4. Transitive Dependencies

project-a depends on project-b, which in turn depends on project-c, then project-c is considered a transitive dependency of project-a. If project-c depended on project-d, then project-d would also be considered a transitive dependency of project-a. Part of Maven’s appeal is that it can manage transitive dependencies and shield the developer from having to keep track of all of the dependencies required to compile and run an application. You can just depend on something like the Spring Framework and not have to worry about tracking down every last dependency of the Spring Framework.

Maven accomplishes this by building a graph of dependencies and dealing with any conflicts and overlaps that might occur. For example, if Maven sees that two projects depend on the same groupId and artifactId, it will sort out which dependency to use automatically, always favoring the more recent version of a dependency. Although this sounds convenient, there are some edge cases where transitive dependencies can cause some configuration issues. For these scenarios, you can use a dependency exclusion.

Transitive Dependencies and Scope

Each of the scopes outlined earlier in the section Section 3.4.1, “Dependency Scope” affects not just the scope of the dependency in the declaring project, but also how it acts as a transitive dependency. The easiest way to convey this information is through a table, as in Table 3.1, “How Scope Affects Transitive Dependencies”. Scopes in the top row represent the scope of a transitive dependency. Scopes in the leftmost column represent the scope of a direct dependency. The intersection of the row and column is the scope that is assigned to a transitive dependency. A blank cell in this table means that the transitive dependency will be omitted.

Table 3.1. How Scope Affects Transitive Dependencies

Direct Scope vs. Transitive Scope

 

compile

provided

runtime

test

compile

compile

-

runtime

-

provided

provided

-

provided

-

runtime

runtime

-

runtime

-

test

test

-

test

-

To illustrate the relationship of transitive dependency scope to direct dependency scope, consider the following example. If project-a contains a test scoped dependency on project-b which contains a compile scoped dependency on project-c. project-c would be a test-scoped transitive dependency of project-a.

You can think of this as a transitive boundary which acts as a filter on dependency scope. Transitive dependencies which are provided and test scope usually do not affect a project. Transitive dependencies which are compile and runtime scoped usually affect a project regardless of the scope of a direct dependency. Transitive dependencies which are compile scoped will have the same scope of the direct dependency . Transitive dependencies which are runtime scoped will generally have the same scope of the direct dependency except when the direct dependency has a scope of compile. When a transitive dependency is runtime scoped and the direct dependency is compile scoped, the transitive dependency will have an effective scope of runtime.

3.4.5. Conflict Resolution

There will be times when you need to exclude a transitive dependency, such as when you are depending on a project that depends on another project, but you would like to either exclude the dependency altogether or replace the transitive dependency with another dependency that provides the same functionality. Excluding a Transitive Dependency shows an example of a dependency element that adds a dependency on project-a, but excludes the transitive dependency project-b.

Excluding a Transitive Dependency. 

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.sonatype.mavenbook</groupId>
    <artifactId>project-a</artifactId>
    <version>1.0</version>
    <exclusions>
        <exclusion>
            <groupId>org.sonatype.mavenbook</groupId>
            <artifactId>project-b</artifactId>
        </exclusion>
    </exclusions>
</dependency>

Often, you will want to replace a transitive dependency with another implementation. For example, if you are depending on a library that depends on the Sun JTA API, you may want to replace the declared transitive dependency. Hibernate is one example. Hibernate depends on the Sun JTA API JAR, which is not available in the central Maven repository because it cannot be freely redistributed. Fortunately, the Apache Geronimo project has created an independent implementation of this library that can be freely redistributed. To replace a transitive dependency with another dependency, you would exclude the transitive dependency and declare a dependency on the project you wanted instead. Excluding and Replacing a Transitive Dependency shows an example of a such replacement.

Excluding and Replacing a Transitive Dependency. 

<dependencies>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
        <artifactId>hibernate</artifactId>
        <version>3.2.5.ga</version>
        <exclusions>
            <exclusion>
                <groupId>javax.transaction</groupId>
                <artifactId>jta</artifactId>
            </exclusion>
        </exclusions>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.apache.geronimo.specs</groupId>
        <artifactId>geronimo-jta_1.1_spec</artifactId>
        <version>1.1</version>
    </dependency>
</dependencies>

In Excluding and Replacing a Transitive Dependency, there is nothing marking the dependency on geronimo-jta_1.1_spec as a replacement, it just happens to be a library which provides the same API as the original JTA dependency. Here are some other reasons you might want to exclude or replace transitive dependencies:

  1. The groupId or artifactId of the artifact has changed, where the current project requires an alternately named version from a dependency’s version - resulting in 2 copies of the same project in the classpath. Normally Maven would capture this conflict and use a single version of the project, but when groupId or artifactId are different, Maven will consider this to be two different libraries.
  2. An artifact is not used in your project and the transitive dependency has not been marked as an optional dependency. In this case, you might want to exclude a dependency because it isn’t something your system needs and you are trying to cut down on the number of libraries distributed with an application.
  3. An artifact which is provided by your runtime container thus should not be included with your build. An example of this is if a dependency depends on something like the Servlet API and you want to make sure that the dependency is not included in a web application’s WEB-INF/lib directory.
  4. To exclude a dependency which might be an API with multiple implementations. This is the situation illustrated by Excluding and Replacing a Transitive Dependency; there is a Sun API which requires click-wrap licensing and a time-consuming manual install into a custom repository (Sun’s JTA JAR) versus a freely distributed version of the same API available in the central Maven repository (Geronimo’s JTA implementation). ==== Dependency Management

Once you’ve adopted Maven at your super complex enterprise and you have two hundred and twenty inter-related Maven projects, you are going to start wondering if there is a better way to get a handle on dependency versions. If every single project that uses a dependency like the MySQL Java connector needs to independently list the version number of the dependency, you are going to run into problems when you need to upgrade to a new version. Because the version numbers are distributed throughout your project tree, you are going to have to manually edit each of the pom.xml files that reference a dependency to make sure that you are changing the version number everywhere. Even with find, xargs, and awk, you are still running the risk of missing a single POM.

Luckily, Maven provides a way for you to consolidate dependency version numbers in the dependencyManagement element. You’ll usually see the dependencyManagement element in a top-level parent POM for an organization or project. Using the dependencyManagement element in a pom.xml allows you to reference a dependency in a child project without having to explicitly list the version. Maven will walk up the parent-child hierarchy until it finds a project with a dependencyManagement element, it will then use the version specified in this dependencyManagement element.

For example, if you have a large set of projects which make use of the MySQL Java connector version 5.1.2, you could define the following dependencyManagement element in your multi-module project’s top-level POM.

Defining Dependency Versions in a Top-level POM. 

<project>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>org.sonatype.mavenbook</groupId>
    <artifactId>a-parent</artifactId>
    <version>1.0.0</version>
    ...
    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>mysql</groupId>
                <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
                <version>5.1.2</version>
                <scope>runtime</scope>
            </dependency>
            ...
            <dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>

Then, in a child project, you can add a dependency to the MySQL Java Connector using the following dependency XML:

<project>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <parent>
        <groupId>org.sonatype.mavenbook</groupId>
        <artifactId>a-parent</artifactId>
        <version>1.0.0</version>
    </parent>
    <artifactId>project-a</artifactId>
    ...
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>mysql</groupId>
            <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</project>

You should notice that the child project did not have to explicitly list the version of the mysql-connector-java dependency. Because this dependency was defined in the top-level POM’s dependencyManagement element, the version number is going to propagate to the child project’s dependency on mysql-connector-java. Note that if this child project did define a version, it would override the version listed in the top-level POM’s dependencyManagement section. That is, the dependencyManagement version is only used when the child does not declare a version directly.

Dependency management in a top-level POM is different from just defining a dependency on a widely shared parent POM. For starters, all dependencies are inherited. If mysql-connector-java were listed as a dependency of the top-level parent project, every single project in the hierarchy would have a reference to this dependency. Instead of adding in unnecessary dependencies, using dependencyManagement allows you to consolidate and centralize the management of dependency versions without adding dependencies which are inherited by all children. In other words, the dependencyManagement element is equivalent to an environment variable which allows you to declare a dependency anywhere below a project without specifying a version number.

3.5. Project Relationships

One of the compelling reasons to use Maven is that it makes the process of tracking down dependencies (and dependencies of dependencies) very easy. When a project depends on an artifact produced by another project we say that this artifact is a dependency. In the case of a Java project, this can be as simple as a project depending on an external dependency like Log4J or JUnit. While dependencies can model external dependencies, they can also manage the dependencies between a set of related projects. If project-a depends on project-b, Maven is smart enough to know that project-b must be built before project-a.

Relationships are not only about dependencies and figuring out what one project needs to be able to build an artifact. Maven can model the relationship of a project to a parent, and the relationship of a project to submodules. This section gives an overview of the various relationships between projects and how such relationships are configured.

3.5.1. More on Coordinates

Coordinates define a unique location for a project. Projects are related to one another using Maven Coordinates. project-a doesn’t just depend on project-b; a project with a groupId, artifactId, and version depends on another project with a groupId, artifactId, and version. To review, a Maven Coordinate is made up of three components:

groupId

A groupId groups a set of related artifacts. Group identifiers generally resemble a Java package name. For example, the groupId org.apache.maven is the base groupId for all artifacts produced by the Apache Maven project. Group identifiers are translated into paths in the Maven Repository; for example, the org.apache.maven groupId can be found in /maven2/org/apache/maven on repo1.maven.org.

artifactId

The artifactId is the project’s main identifier. When you generate an artifact, this artifact is going to be named with the artifactId. When you refer to a project, you are going to refer to it using the artifactId. The artifactId, groupId combination must be unique. In other words, you can’t have two separate projects with the same artifactId and groupId; artifactId s are unique within a particular groupId.

Note

While '.'s are commonly used in groupId s, you should try to avoid using them in artifactId s. This can cause issues when trying to parse a fully qualified name down into the subcomponents.

version

When an artifact is released, it is released with a version number. This version number is a numeric identifier such as "1.0", "1.1.1", or "1.1.2-alpha-01". You can also use what is known as a snapshot version. A snapshot version is a version for a component which is under development, snapshot version numbers always end in SNAPSHOT; for example, "1.0-SNAPSHOT", "1.1.1-SNAPSHOT", and "1-SNAPSHOT". the section called “Version Build Numbers” introduces versions and version ranges.

There is a fourth, less-used qualifier:

classifier

You would use a classifier if you were releasing the same code but needed to produce two separate artifacts for technical reasons. For example, if you wanted to build two separate artifacts of a JAR, one compiled with the Java 1.4 compiler and another compiled with the Java 6 compiler, you might use the classifier to produce two separate JAR artifacts under the same groupId:artifactId:version combination. If your project uses native extensions, you might use the classifier to produce an artifact for each target platform. Classifiers are commonly used to package up an artifact’s sources, JavaDocs or binary assemblies.

When we talk of dependencies in this book, we often use the following shorthand notation to describe a dependency: groupId:artifactId:version. To refer to the 2.5 release of the Spring Framework, we would refer to it as org.springframework:spring:2.5. When you ask Maven to print out a list of dependencies with the Maven Dependency plugin, you will also see that Maven tends to print out log messages with this shorthand dependency notation.

3.5.2. Project Inheritance

There are going to be times when you want a project to inherit values from a parent POM. You might be building a large system, and you don’t want to have to repeat the same dependency elements over and over again. You can avoid repeating yourself if your projects make use of inheritance via the parent element. When a project specifies a parent, it inherits the information in the parent project’s POM. It can then override and add to the values specified in this parent POM.

All Maven POMs inherit values from a parent POM. If a POM does not specify a direct parent using the parent element, that POM will inherit values from the Super POM. Project Inheritance shows the parent element of project-a which inherits the POM defined by the a-parent project.

Project Inheritance. 

<project>
    <parent>
        <groupId>com.training.killerapp</groupId>
        <artifactId>a-parent</artifactId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <artifactId>project-a</artifactId>
    ...
</project>

Running mvn help:effective-pom in project-a would show a POM that is the result of merging the Super POM with the POM defined by a-parent and the POM defined in project-a. The implicit and explicit inheritance relationships for project-a are shown in Figure 3.3, “Project Inheritance for a-parent and project-a”.

Figure 3.3. Project Inheritance for a-parent and project-a

When a project specifies a parent project, Maven uses that parent POM as a starting point before it reads the current project’s POM. It inherits everything, including the groupId and version number. You’ll notice that project-a does not specify either, both groupId and version are inherited from a-parent. With a parent element, all a POM really needs to define is an artifactId. This isn’t mandatory, project-a could have a different groupId and version, but by not providing values, Maven will use the values specified in the parent POM. If you start using Maven to manage and build large multi-module projects, you will often be creating many projects which share a common groupId and version.

When you inherit a POM, you can choose to live with the inherited POM information or to selectively override it. The following is a list of items a Maven POM inherits from its parent POM:

  • identifiers (at least one of groupId or artifactId must be overridden.)
  • dependencies
  • developers and contributors
  • plugin lists
  • reports lists
  • plugin executions (executions with matching ids are merged)
  • plugin configuration

When Maven inherits dependencies, it will add dependencies of child projects to the dependencies defined in parent projects. You can use this feature of Maven to specify widely used dependencies across all projects which inherit from a top-level POM. For example, if your system makes universal use of the Log4J logging framework, you can list this dependency in your top-level POM. Any projects which inherit POM information from this project will automatically have Log4J as a dependency. Similarly, if you need to make sure that every project is using the same version of a Maven plugin, you can list this Maven plugin version explicitly in a top-level parent POM’s pluginManagement section.

Maven assumes that the parent POM is available from the local repository, or available in the parent directory (../pom.xml) of the current project. If neither location is valid this default behavior may be overridden via the relativePath element. For example, some organizations prefer a flat project structure where a parent project’s pom.xml isn’t in the parent directory of a child project. It might be in a sibling directory to the project. If your child project were in a directory ./project-a and the parent project were in a directory named ./a-parent, you could specify the relative location of parent-a's POM with the following configuration:

<project>
    <parent>
        <groupId>org.sonatype.mavenbook</groupId>
        <artifactId>a-parent</artifactId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        <relativePath>../a-parent/pom.xml</relativePath>
    </parent>
    <artifactId>project-a</artifactId>
</project>

3.6. POM Best Practices

Maven can be used to manage everything from simple, single-project systems to builds that involve hundreds of inter-related submodules. Part of the learning process with Maven isn’t just figuring out the syntax for configuring Maven, it is learning the "Maven Way"—the current set of best practices for organizing and building projects using Maven. This section attempts to distill some of this knowledge to help you adopt best practices from the start without having to wade through years of discussions on the Maven mailing lists.

3.6.1. Grouping Dependencies

If you have a set of dependencies which are logically grouped together. You can create a project with pom packaging that groups dependencies together. For example, let’s assume that your application uses Hibernate, a popular Object-Relational mapping framework. Every project which uses Hibernate might also have a dependency on the Spring Framework and a MySQL JDBC driver. Instead of having to include these dependencies in every project that uses Hibernate, Spring, and MySQL you could create a special POM that does nothing more than declare a set of common dependencies. You could create a project called persistence-deps (short for Persistence Dependencies), and have every project that needs to do persistence depend on this convenience project:

Consolidating Dependencies in a Single POM Project. 

<project>
    <groupId>org.sonatype.mavenbook</groupId>
    <artifactId>persistence-deps</artifactId>
    <version>1.0</version>
    <packaging>pom</packaging>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
            <artifactId>hibernate</artifactId>
            <version>${hibernateVersion}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
            <artifactId>hibernate-annotations</artifactId>
            <version>${hibernateAnnotationsVersion}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-hibernate3</artifactId>
            <version>${springVersion}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>mysql</groupId>
            <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
            <version>${mysqlVersion}</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
    <properties>
        <mysqlVersion>(5.1,)</mysqlVersion>
        <springVersion>(2.0.6,)</springVersion>
        <hibernateVersion>3.2.5.ga</hibernateVersion>
        <hibernateAnnotationsVersion>3.3.0.ga</hibernateAnnotationsVersion>
    </properties>
</project>

If you create this project in a directory named persistence-deps, all you need to do is create this pom.xml and run mvn install. Since the packaging type is pom, this POM is installed in your local repository. You can now add this project as a dependency and all of its dependencies will be added as transitive dependencies to your project. When you declare a dependency on this persistence-deps project, don’t forget to specify the dependency type as pom.

Declaring a Dependency on a POM. 

<project>
    <description>This is a project requiring JDBC</description>
    ...
    <dependencies>
        ...
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.sonatype.mavenbook</groupId>
            <artifactId>persistence-deps</artifactId>
            <version>1.0</version>
            <type>pom</type>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</project>

If you later decide to switch to a different JDBC driver (for example, JTDS), just replace the dependencies in the persistence-deps project to use net.sourceforge.jtds:jtds instead of mysql:mysql-java-connector and update the version number. All projects depending on persistence-deps will use JTDS if they decide to update to the newer version. Consolidating related dependencies is a good way to cut down on the length of pom.xml files that start having to depend on a large number of dependencies. If you need to share a large number of dependencies between projects, you could also just establish parent-child relationships between projects and refactor all common dependencies to the parent project, but the disadvantage of the parent-child approach is that a project can have only one parent. Sometimes it makes more sense to group similar dependencies together and reference a pom dependency. This way, your project can reference as many of these consolidated dependency POMs as it needs.

Note

Maven uses the depth of a dependency in the tree when resolving conflicts using a nearest-wins approach. Using the dependency grouping technique above pushes those dependencies one level down in the tree. Keep this in mind when choosing between grouping in a pom or using dependencyManagement in a parent POM

3.6.2. Multi-module vs. Inheritance

There is a difference between inheriting from a parent project and being managed by a multimodule project. A parent project is one that passes its values to its children. A multimodule project simply manages a group of other subprojects or modules. The multimodule relationship is defined from the topmost level downwards. When setting up a multimodule project, you are simply telling a project that its build should include the specified modules. Multimodule builds are to be used to group modules together in a single build. The parent-child relationship is defined from the leaf node upwards. The parent-child relationship deals more with the definition of a particular project. When you associate a child with its parent, you are telling Maven that a project’s POM is derived from another.

To illustrate the decision process that goes into choosing a design that uses inheritance vs. multi-module or both approaches consider the following two examples: the Maven project used to generate this book and a hypothetical project that contains a number of logically grouped modules.

Simple Project

First, let’s take a look at the maven-book project. The inheritance and multi-module relationships are shown in Figure 3.4, “maven-book Multi-module vs. Inheritance”.

Figure 3.4. maven-book Multi-module vs. Inheritance

When we build this Maven book you are reading, we run mvn package in a multi-module project named maven-book. This multi-module project includes two submodules: book-examples and book-chapters. Neither of these projects share the same parent, they are related only in that they are modules in the maven-book project. book-examples builds the ZIP and TGZ archives you downloaded to get this book’s example. When we run the book-examples build from book-examples/ directory with mvn package, it has no knowledge that it is a part of the larger maven-book project. book-examples doesn’t really care about maven-book, all it knows in life is that its parent is the top-most sonatype POM and that it creates an archive of examples. In this case, the maven-book project exists only as a convenience and as an aggregator of modules.

Each of the three projects: maven-book, book-examples, and book-chapters all list a shared "corporate" parent — sonatype. This is a common practice in organizations which have adopted Maven, instead of having every project extend the Super POM by default, some organizations define a top-level corporate POM that serves as the default parent when a project doesn’t have any good reason to depend on another. In this book example, there is no compelling reason to have book-examples and book-chapters share the same parent POM, they are entirely different projects which have a different set of dependencies, a different build configuration, and use drastically different plugins to create the content you are now reading. The sonatype POM gives the organization a chance to customize the default behavior of Maven and supply some organization-specific information to configure deployment settings and build profiles.

Multi-module Enterprise Project

Let’s take a look at an example that provides a more accurate picture of a real-world project where inheritance and multi-module relationships exist side by side. Figure 3.5, “Enterprise Multi-module vs. Inheritance” shows a collection of projects that resemble a typical set of projects in an enterprise application. There is a top-level POM for the corporation with an artifactId of sonatype. There is a multi-module project named big-system which references sub-modules server-side and client-side.

Figure 3.5. Enterprise Multi-module vs. Inheritance

What’s going on here? Let’s try to deconstruct this confusing set of arrows. First, let’s take a look at big-system. The big-system might be the project that you would run mvn package on to build and test the entire system. big-system references submodules client-side and server-side. Each of these projects effectively rolls up all of the code that runs on either the server or on the client. Let’s focus on the server-side project. Under the server-side project we have a project called server-lib and a multi-module project named web-apps. Under web-apps we have two Java web applications: client-web and admin-web.

Let’s start with the parent/child relationships from client-web and admin-web to web-apps. Since both of the web applications are implemented in the same web application framework (let’s say Wicket), both projects would share the same set of core dependencies. The dependencies on the Servlet API, the JSP API, and Wicket would all be captured in the web-apps project. Both client-web and admin-web also need to depend on server-lib, this dependency would be defined as a dependency between web-apps and server-lib. Because client-web and admin-web share so much configuration by inheriting from web-apps, both client-web and admin-web will have very small POMs containing little more than identifiers, a parent declaration, and a final build name.

Next we focus on the parent/child relationship from web-apps and server-lib to server-side. In this case, let’s just assume that there is a separate working group of developers which work on the server-side code and another group of developers that work on the client-side code. The list of developers would be configured in the server-side POM and inherited by all of the child projects underneath it: web-apps, server-lib, client-web, and admin-web. We could also imagine that the server-side project might have different build and deployment settings which are unique to the development for the server side. The server-side project might define a build profile that only makes sense for all of the server-side projects. This build profile might contain the database host and credentials, or the server-side project’s POM might configure a specific version of the Maven Jetty plugin which should be universal across all projects that inherit the server-side POM.

In this example, the main reason to use parent/child relationships is shared dependencies and common configuration for a group of projects which are logically related. All of the projects below big-system are related to one another as submodules, but not all submodules are configured to point back to parent project that included it as a submodule. Everything is a submodule for reasons of convenience, to build the entire system just go to the big-system project directory and run mvn package. Look more closely at the figure and you’ll see that there is no parent/child relationship between server-side and big-system. Why is this? POM inheritance is very powerful, but it can be overused. When it makes sense to share dependencies and build configuration, a parent/child relationship should be used. When it doesn’t make sense is when there are distinct differences between two projects. Take, for example, the server-side and client-side projects. It is possible to create a system where client-side and server-side inherited a common POM from big-system, but as soon as a significant divergence between the two child projects develops, you then have to figure out creative ways to factor out common build configuration to big-system without affecting all of the children. Even though client-side and server-side might both depend on Log4J, they also might have distinct plugin configurations.

There’s a certain point defined more by style and experience where you decide that minimal duplication of configuration is a small price to pay for allowing projects like client-side and server-side to remain completely independent. Designing a huge set of thirty plus projects which all inherit five levels of POM configuration isn’t always the best idea. In such a setup, you might not have to duplicate your Log4J dependency more than once, but you’ll also end up having to wade through five levels of POM just figure out how Maven calculated your effective POM. All of this complexity to avoid duplicating five lines of dependency declaration. In Maven, there is a "Maven Way", but there are also many ways to accomplish the same thing. It all boils down to preference and style. For the most part, you won’t go wrong if all of your submodules turn out to define back-references to the same project as a parent, but your use of Maven may evolve over time.